After Poland learned that populated territories in Poland were to be transferred to Germany, Poland issued a note to the Czechoslovak government regarding the immediate conclusion of an agreement providing for the unquestionable occupation of Polish territory by Polish troops; An agreement on referendums is expected to follow in districts with a large proportion of the Polish population.  Chamberlain fought as Prime Minister until May 1940, when he resigned and took over Winston Churchill, a fierce critic of appeasement. Chamberlain died in November 1940. However, he continued to be denigrated for his general appeasement and for his actions of September 1938, especially long after his death and the end of the war. The Czechoslovakians were appalled by the colony of Munich. They were not invited to the conference and felt betrayed by the British and French governments. Many Czechs and Slovaks describe the Munich agreement as a Munich diktat (Czech: Mnichovska diktéta); in Slovak: Mnechovska diktét). The phrase «Munich betrayal» (Czech: Mnichovska zrada; In Slovak: Mnechovska zrada) is also used because Czechoslovakia`s military alliance with France proved useless. This is also reflected in the fact that the French government, in particular, had considered that Czechoslovakia would be held responsible for any European war that would result if the Czechoslovak Republic defended itself by force against German abuses. In 1938, the Soviet Union was allied with France and Czechoslovakia. In September 1939, the Soviets were in every respect a fighter with Nazi Germany, due to Stalin`s fears that a second Munich agreement with the Soviet Union would replace Czechoslovakia. Thus, the agreement indirectly contributed to the outbreak of war in 1939.
 On 5 October, he resigned as President of Czechoslovakia because he realized that the fall of Czechoslovakia was inevitable. After the outbreak of World War II, he formed a Czechoslovakian government in exile in London. On 6 December 1938, The French Foreign Minister, Mr. Bonnet, and the German Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, signed the Franco-German non-aggression pact in Paris.    Later in the meeting, a pre-arranged deception was made to influence and pressure Chamberlain: one of Hitler`s accomplices entered the room to inform Hitler of other Germans killed in Czechoslovakia, after which Hitler shouted: «I will avenge each of them.